Parallell sessions2018-09-02T18:10:54+00:00

Parallell sessions

Parallell Sessions (Printable PDF)

1 – 12 (6 September 13:15 – 14:15)

1 DK1 – English
Protecting children on social media (max 50 per.)

Kuno Sørensen, psychologist working with Red Barnet Denmark with the themes of violence and sexual abuse against children, and with particular focus on digital communication and the Internet.

Protecting children on social media – Workshop in English – Open participation

Children and young people live a large part of their social lives through smartphones, tablets and computers. Earlier, the focus on protection has been that adults could contact and commit sexual abuse by contacting children through profiles online. Over recent years, more attention has been paid to how children and young people can also be harassing, threatening and sexually offensive to each other. We as parents and adults have not been good enough to take the debate on legislation, ethics and morals in the digital world. Perhaps because we have been impressed with the children’s technical skills and have forgotten that they are still immature and social inexperienced. Facebook has an ambition that everyone should be able to share everything with everyone. But there are nevertheless limits to what is worth sharing.

There is a need for focus on where the lines between privacy and public life should be and that sharing of private and intimate information and images requires active consent. Red Since 2001, Red Barnet (Save the Children Denmark) has participated in international l cooperation to combat images and movies of sexual abuse on children online (child pornography) and, in addition, collaborated with the Crime Prevention Council on children´s online security on the website sikkerchat (safechat). Since 2016, Red Barnet has supplemented the efforts with a special helpline and councelling, SletDet, (delete it) aimed at children and young people who suffer from incidents where private, offensive or intimate information or images have been shared online without their consent. The workshop will review these efforts, and discuss and point out new areas or trends in the use of social media by children and young people, and whether these require new or different efforts.

redbarnet.dk/sletdet
redbarnet.dk/sikkerchat
redbarnet.dk/anmeld

Kuno Sørensen is a psychologist and has since 2001 worked with Red Barnet Denmark with the themes of violence and sexual abuse against children, and with particular focus on digital communication and the Internet.

Beskyttelse af børn på sociale medier – Workshop in English – Open participation
Børn og unge lever en stor del af deres sociale liv via smartphones, tablets og computere. Tidligere har fokus på beskyttelsen været, at voksne kunne kontakte og begå overgreb på børn ved at skabe kontakt til dem gennem profiler online. Gennem de senere år er der kommet mere fokus på, hvordan børn og unge også kan være grænseoverskridende, truende og seksuelt krænkende over for hinanden. Vi har som forældre og voksne ikke været gode nok til at tage diskussionen om lovgivning, etik og moral i den digitale verden. Måske fordi vi har været imponerede over børns tekniske færdigheder, og har glemt at de stadig er umodne og sociale uerfarne. Facebook har en ambition om at alle skal kunne del alt med alle.

Men der er alligevel grænser for hvad der er værd at dele. Der er behov for fokus på hvor grænsen mellem privatliv og offentligt liv skal ligge, og at deling af private og intime oplysninger og billeder kræver et aktivt samtykke. Red Barnet har siden 2001 deltaget i et internationalt samarbejde om at bekæmpe billeder og film af seksuelle overgreb på børn på nettet (børnepornografi) og desuden sammen med Det Kriminalpræventive Råd arbejdet med oplysningssiden sikkerchat. Siden 2016 har Red Barnet suppleret indsatsen med en særlig rådgivning, SletDet, som henvender sig til børn og unge, som uden deres samtykke har fået delt private, krænkende eller intime oplysninger eller billeder online. Workshoppen vil gøre status over disse indsatser og drøfte hvilke nye områder eller tendenser der er i børn og unges brug af sociale medier, og hvorvidt disse kræver nye eller anderledes indsatser.

redbarnet.dk/sletdet
redbarnet.dk/sikkerchat
redbarnet.dk/anmeld

Kuno Sørensen er psykolog og har siden 2001 arbejdet i Red Barnet Danmark med temaerne på vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn, med særlig fokus på den digitale kommunikation og internettet.

2 DK2  – Dansk
Børneinddragelse – hvad siger børn og unge selv?
Bente Boserup, seniorkonsulent i Børns Vilkår med ekspertviden indenfor skilsmisser og omsorgssvigt. Marianne Rasmussen, chef for BørneTelefonen og Bisidningen i Børns Vilkår.

Børneinddragelse – hvad siger børn og unge selv?  Workshoppen afholdes på dansk – Max deltagerantal: 50
”Der kom bare nogle mennesker og sagde: Nu gør vi sådan her….” Maja, 16 år

Børns Vilkår har igennem de sidste 4 år arbejdet med børneinddragelse i 3 kommuner i Danmark. Vi bisidder børn ved samtaler i kommunerne og i Statsforvaltningen, og har via samtalerne på BørneTelefonen stor erfaring i at tale med børn og unge om deres tanker, følelser og rettigheder. Fra børnene ved vi en masse om, hvad der optager dem, hvad der påvirker deres hverdag og deres relationer til andre unge samt til forældrene. Vi vil i workshoppen tage afsæt i de erfaringer, børn og unge har i forhold til at blive inddraget i beslutninger, der vedrører deres eget liv.  Vi vil fortælle, hvordan vi på BørneTelefonen og i forbindelse med bisidning af børn og unge taler med dem om det, der er vigtigt for dem. Hvilken betydning har begrebet ”magt” i disse samtaler – hvordan kan der være forskelle på, hvad vi som de voksne vil, og hvad den unge vil/ønsker/drømmer om?  Hvordan tackler vi at være i det spænd? Hvordan understøtter vi barnets empowerment samtidig med, at vi – når det drejer sig om rettigheder – ønsker at fortælle barnet, hvad vi ved?  Vi vil fortælle, hvilke anbefalinger de unge selv kommer med, når de ser tilbage på deres barndom med en sag i kommunen. Og vi vil beskrive, hvordan vi bruger børnenes fortællinger og erfaringer i vores børnefaglige og børnepolitiske arbejde.

Bente Boserup, seniorkonsulent i Børns Vilkår med ekspertviden indenfor skilsmisser og omsorgssvigt. Bente har igennem 16 års arbejde som chef på BørneTelefonen været optaget af inddragelse af børn og børns rettigheder. Bente har således bragt børnenes stemmer ind i de politiske og børnefaglige arenaer for at skabe bedre vilkår for dem. Bente er oprindelig uddannet lærer og familieterapeut. Har arbejdet en del år med udsatte børn og deres familier. Er forfatter til fagbøger om skilsmisser og omsorgssvigt. Underviser fagpersoner og forældre. Har udarbejdet interviews med børn og unge i forbindelse med to rapporter fra Børns Vilkår: Komplekse skilsmisser, 2016, og: Ret til inddragelse, 2017.

Marianne Rasmussen, chef for BørneTelefonen og Bisidningen i Børns Vilkår. Marianne er optaget af, at børn får aktivt mulighed for at blive inddraget i deres egne sager i offentligt regi, at børn får reel indflydelse på deres eget liv, får styrke til at sige fra og får opfyldt deres rettigheder. Herudover at deres stemmer får afgørende betydning på samfundsbeslutningerne, så vi i højere grad får et samfund, hvor børn trives. Marianne er oprindelig uddannet socialrådgiver og har efterfølgende taget en lederuddannelse. Hun har mange års erfaring fra offentlig praksis i forhold til arbejdet med udsatte børn og unge, både som socialrådgiver, konsulent og i 8 år som chef i en kommune.

“Child participation – how do children and young people speak about their own participation?” Workshop in Danish – A maximum of 50 participants

“There came some people and said: “Now we do like this….” (Maja, 16 years old)

The Children’s Welfare in Denmark (Børns Vilkår) has during the last 4 years worked with 3 municipalities in Denmark. We assess children when they are called for conversations in the municipalities or in the State Administration (Statsforvaltningen). From the Children’s Helpline we have an extensive experience in talking with children and young people about their feelings and rights. From the children we know a lot about their interests, what influences their daily life and their relations to other young people and to their parents. In this workshop we will use the children’s experiences of how they are involved in decisions concerning their own lives. We will report on how we at the Children’s Helpline and from our work as assessors talk with them about what is important to them.  Which influence has the concept of “force” in these conversations – and why are there differences between what we as adults want and the wishes and dreams of the children and young people? How can we tackle this?  How do we empower the child and at the same time show them which experiences we have gained from the children’s rights?  We will share with the audience which recommendations are given by the children and young people themselves. Not less if they look back on their childhood with a case in their municipalities. In addition, we will describe how we as a children’s organization share their stories and experiences directly in our child policy work.

Bente Boserup, Senior Consultant in the Children’s Welfare in Danmark and an expert in matters of divorces and short of care among children and young people. Bente has been the director of the Children’s Helpline for 16 years and she is very concerned about involvement of children and their Rights.

Marianne Rasmussen, present director of the Children’s Helpline and the Assessor Scheme. Marianne is concerned about how the children get involved in their activities with the municipalities that they have real influence on their own lives and thereby obtain their rights.

3 FI1 – English
Fostering alternative care for troubled minors in five European countries
Dr. Elina Pekkarinen, research manager, Finnish Youth Research Network

Children and young people with simultaneous mental health problems, child welfare needs, and criminal behavior, set a serious challenge for the care and welfare system. The incapability to identify and to respond to the needs of these children cause long term threats not only to their own well being, but to the communities and societies as a whole. The project ‘FACT FOR MINORS – Fostering Alternative Care for Troubled Minors’ addresses the children with psychological, psychiatric or personality disorders, hosted by socio-educational communities as a consequence of penal measures.

This project intends to find out challenges related to multi-professional co-operation, and to reinforce the capacity of alternative care communities in five European Union (EU) countries -Finland, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain- to adequately support and respond to the specific needs of these children. In this presentation, the findings of the project in different countries will be presented together with the suggestions for future particularly in the Nordic context.
Website of the project http://www.oijj.org/en/fact-introduction

4 FI2 – English
Promoting positive parenting to prevent corporal punishment of children
Sauli Hyvärinen, senior adviser, Central Union for Child Welfare
Suvi Laru, psychologist, psychotherapist, EMDR-therapist, teacher, team manager, The Family Federation of Finland

Promoting positive parenting to prevent corporal punishment of children

Central Union for Child Welfare has for the past decades conducted surveys to evaluate the attitudes of Finnish people towards corporal punishment. How often do parents use corporal punishment against their own children in Finland? 1,009 Finns between the ages 15-79 were interviewed for this study. According to the findings, both the accepting attitudes towards corporal punishment and the use of physical punishment in the home have declined markedly in the past decades. However, there are many parents who still use corporal punishment in disciplining their children in Finland.  Positive parenting programs are one mean of providing parents concrete options of how to raise the children in a loving, understanding and non-violent atmosphere. Many of the parents have been physically punished in their childhood and they need advice and guidance to take a step away from the parenting model that dominated in their own childhood.

Speakers
Sauli Hyvärinen, senior adviser, Central Union for Child Welfare
Suvi Laru, psychologist, psychotherapist, EMDR-therapist, teacher, team manager, The Family Federation of Finland

5 FÆ1 – Dansk
Child Protecion in small communities
Jørundur Hansen, social worker and Hans Mourits Foldbo, psychologist, Child protection Services in the northern part of Faroe Islands

Child Protecion in small communities
Research has shown that small-scale societies like the northern islands with six thousand inhabitants have a high level of mutual person-based recognisabilty. This made us curious and we decided to research how families experience contact and intervention from the Child Protection Agency where everyone has a level of prior knowledge of each other. The research is based on relevant sociological theories.

Børneværn i små samfund
Undersøgelser viser, at små samfund som Nordøerne med sine 6.000 indbyggere er kendetegnet ved en høj genkendelighed. Dette har vakt vores nysgerrighed, og vi besluttede at undersøge, hvordan familier oplever kontakten og indgriben fra vores Børneværnstjeneste, når alle på forhånd ved mere eller mindre om hinanden. Undersøgelsen tager afsæt i relevante sociologiske teorier.

6 IS1 – English
Implementation of Barnahus in Europe
Anna Kaldal, Law Faculty Stockholm University Sweden
Bragi Guðbrandsson, former General Director of The Governmental Agency For Child Protection in Iceland
Carl Göran Swedin, Barnafrid, IKE, Linköping University, Sweden

From the establishment of Barnahus Iceland 20 years ago we have seen the model spread over the Nordic countries and beyond. Allowing for some difficulties in definition, Barnahus are to be found in approximately 60 cities in at least 12 European countries and more are to follow. Interestingly, the path of coming into being as well as the implementation of Barnahus reflect the different social, legal and cultural traditions of these countries. This demonstrates the flexibility of the Barnahus model but also presents challenges in terms of ensuring fidelity to the evidence based practices on which the model rests.

This workshop will address some of the features of the proliferation of Barnahus in Europe, the dynamics of this process and diversity of implementation, in particular among the Nordic countries. In this context your attention should be drawn to the publication: Collaborating against Child Abuse: exploring the Nordic Barnahus model (https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-58388-4?page=1#toc), a comparative analysis on the different implementation of Barnahus among the Nordic countries, initiated by NOVA, the Norwegian Research Institute.

7 NO1 – Norsk
Hvorfor skal vi lytte til barna? Verdien av barns medvirkning i kommunens anbudskonkurranse
Iben Schier van den Berg, Avdelingsdirektør, Barne – og familieetaten i Oslo kommune
Vilde Adolfsen, Leder, Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn
Ruzzel Solberg, Erfaringskonsulent for Landsforeningen for Barnevernsbarn

Hvorfor skal vi lytte til barna? 


-Verdien av barns medvirkning i kommunens anbudskonkurranse-
  

Barne- og familieetaten i Oslo  har ansvar for å gi tilbud til barn og unge som skal flytte ut av hjemmet for en kortere eller lengre periode. Bydelenes barneverntjenester er ansvarlige for å treffe de nødvendige vedtak før barnet flytter på institusjon.  

Etaten er opptatt av barn og unges medvirkning i utviklingen av kunnskapsbasert tjenesteutvikling, og vektlegger barn og unges egne erfaringer og kunnskap om hvordan det er å bo på en institusjon. 

Derfor har barne – og familieetaten tatt initiativ til å involvere barn og unge i anskaffelser av barneverninstitusjoner. Etatens anskaffelse er bygget opp omkring åtte kjerneoppgaver som alle har utgangspunkt i barn og unges behov – kjerneoppgavene er utarbeidet med innspill fra barn og unge. 


Det har vært viktig å ha med barn helt fra første planleggingsmøte, i utarbeidelsen av indikatorer på kvalitet og evalueringsmatrise, samt gjennomlesning av konkrete tilbud. 
 

Vi tror derfor at ved å involvere barn og unge i institusjonsanskaffelsene, vil vi få bedre institusjonstilbud. Vi mener vi vil få et bedre grunnlag for å følge opp avtalene gjennom fokus på kjerneverdier. Vi tror vi lettere vil kunne ta barn og unges perspektiv i dialog med den enkelte institusjon. Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn (LFB) er en medlems- og interesseorganisasjon for nåværende og tidligere barnevernsbarn, som jobber for å bedre barn og unges rettigheter i møte med barnevernet. Vi er opptatt av å ta barn og unges opplevelser på alvor, og forvalte disse erfaringene på en måte som fører til et bedre og mer hensiktsmessig barnevern. 


LFB har vært en stor pådriver for brukermedvirkning og brukerinvolvering helt siden organisasjonen ble stiftet i 1997. Vi er opptatt av at medvirkningen må være reell, og at man får medvirke i alle ledd av prosessen. Vi mener at barnevernet, gjennom medvirkning, vil kunne tilby bedre tjenester som er relevante og tidsriktige for barn og unge. Dette gjelder også for samarbeidet mellom LFB og
Barne-og familietetaten 

Iben Schier van den Berg, Avdelingsdirektør, Barne – og familieetaten i Oslo kommune
Vilde Adolfsen, Leder, Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn
Ruzzel Solberg, Erfaringskonsulent for Landsforeningen for Barnevernsbarn

8 NO2 – English
Reliability and quality assurance in child welfare services
Sidsel Sverdrup, Professor, PhD (dr. polit.) VID Specialized University, Faculty of Health Studies

Reliability and quality assurance in child welfare services

The search light in this presentation is on the municipal child welfare’s work on reliability and good practice, quality assurance and internal control. These are governance terms as specified in the Child Welfare Services Act. An important question is how these concepts are understood by various actors who work with child welfare services. A qualitative study has been conducted. It was based on a strategic selection of child welfare services and administrations in three municipalities in Norway. Totally 23 informants working in or with child welfare service were interviewed, including case managers, leaders of child welfare services, faculty managers, unit managers, municipal managers and councilors, as well as representatives from the county councils and the Norwegian Public Health Authority. A qualitative interview guide was used, focusing on topics related good practice, internal control, deviation, quality and quality assurance, competence and working culture. Questions were raised about how these concepts are perceived and understood, as well as handled in practice.

One main result is that there are different understandings of the key concepts of the interviewees, depending on where in the intervention chain they are. Case managers are familiar with the terms and their content, but they only use them to a very small extent. They tend to use other terms, such as “best interests of the child” or “good enough services”. However, this does not mean that they don’t provide what the job and the legislation expects from them. Their practices, as stated both in interviews and in observations, point out that they are conscientious in their professional practice and committed to providing reliable services. Leaders of child welfare services stand in an intermediate position between case managers and administrators: They are aware that case managers do not have an active relationship to the relevant concepts, and when communicating with their case managers, they are usually using the same concepts as the case managers do. However, when leaders of child welfare services communicate in line to their leaders, the terms of reference expressed in the legislation are used.

From all levels, it is emphasized that the concepts of reliability, quality and quality assurance, internal control and nonconformity refer to different aspects of the same matter: good child welfare services should be committed to continuous quality development and quality assurance. This depends on resources, competence and time, a good and supportive working culture, guidance and good practices and proper management

9 SV1 – English
Interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health
Knut Sundell Associate Professor, Senior Advisor for Social Affairs, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

Interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health

The seminar will present two systematic reviews on interventions for children in foster care and their foster parents. The first review focus on interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health, social situation, quality of life, and stability of placements. The second review focus on an alternative to residential care for antisocial juveniles: Treatment Foster Care Oregon.

This review focus on criminal behavior, incarceration, drug use, mental health and social situation. The presentation will include economic, and ethical impact analyses, as well as implications for professional work. The presentation will be commented by representatives from the organization Maskrosbarn and Professor Marie Sallnäs.

Presenter: Knut Sundell Associate Professor, Senior Advisor for Social Affairs
Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

10 SV2 – English
Interventions by the personal social services when children are maltreated
Stefan Wiklund, Associate professor and Hanna Linell, Phd

Interventions by the personal social services when children are maltreated

Two presentations will be held during the seminar. The first presentation covers a systematic review on in-home interventions targeting children exposed to child maltreatment including abuse and IPV. The review was published in 2018 by the Swedish Agency For Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services and is presented by one of the participants in the expert group.

The second presentation covers a dissertation from the Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, on formal applications of compulsory care made by municipalities in Swedish child welfare as well as societal responses when children are exposed to violence. The thesis is based on the perspective of children as actors and victims, and is presented by the author.

After the two presentations, representatives from the organization Maskrosbarn, and Kjerstin Bergman, National coordinator development work children and young people (Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions) are giving their reflections of the review as well as the dissertation.

Presenters: Stefan Wiklund, Associate professor and Hanna Linell, Phd

11 NVC – English
A Nordic perspective on integration

Kristin Marklund, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Mette Blauenfeldt, Head of Knowledge Center for Vulnerable Refugees at the Danish Refugee Council
Ali Safi, Mindspringtrainer, from the Danish Refugee Council
Edda Ólafsdóttir, Jóhanna Erla Guðjónsdóttir and Jóhanna Jóhannesdóttir from City of Reykjavik

A Nordic perspective on integration

One of our times most important challenge is the integration of newly arrived children, young people and families. A good integration can improve people’s lives and also strengthen the Nordic welfare states over time.

Around 200 000 child and adolescent asylum seekers came to the Nordic region between 2011 and 2016. Although a majority of the children came with their families, a large number came as unaccompanied minors.

At this seminar we will present Nordic projects in process regarding integration of children coming as refugees to the Nordic countries. We will present examples of different early interventions used in the countries for children and families new to their country. A specific focus will be held on the MindSpring program from Denmark and the results that they – since 2010 – have achieved. We will also give an insight in how Iceland is working with these issues. Comparisons between the countries and identifying and disseminating best practices from each other can facilitate a more successful integration.

Anna Gärdegård, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Kristin Marklund, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Mette Blauenfeldt, Head of Knowledge Center for Vulnerable Refugees at the Danish Refugee Council
Edda Ólafsdóttir, Jóhanna Erla Guðjónsdóttir and Jóhanna Jóhannesdóttir from City of Reykjavik

12 EN- English

Children related to femicide cases in Iceland
Freydís J. Freysteinsdóttir, Associate professor in social work at the University of Iceland.

Children´s participation in welfare services
Hervör Alma Árnadóttir, PhD student, Lecturer
Dr. Guðrún Kristinsdóttir, Professor Emerita

Families with Cancer: childrens conditions
Phd Sigrún Júlíusdóttir, Social Worker and family therapist

Children related to femicide cases in Iceland

In this study, cases were explored which included children who had lost their mothers because of femicide. All verdicts and media from a 30 year period were analyzed, which included mothers who had been killed by their partners, former partners, boyfriends or sexual partners.  Seven mothers were killed during this time period. They had a total of 12 children who were from the age of one years old up to 18 years old when the incident occurred. The frequency of children losing their mothers because of femicide during this time period was 0.56 per 100.000. Eight of those 12 children had a father who had killed their mother. In four of the seven cases or a little over half of the cases, the child or children were at the crime scene when the murders took place or a total of six children. Some of them were in the same room, where the murder took place or in the same area. Eight of those 12 children did not only lose their mother, but their father also went to prison or into a protective custody following the incident or committed suicide. The perpetrators were experiencing severe problems prior to the incidents, such as psychiatric problems, drug dependency or their partner was divorcing them against their will. Guidelines have been created for various institutions, by Cost members of Femicide in Europe, in order to prevent femicide cases and motherless children because of femicide in the future.

Freydís J. Freysteinsdóttir, Associate professor in social work at the University of Iceland

***

Children´s participation in welfare services

Children’s participation is one of the main themes in the CRC and has been confirmed to have positive effects on children’s emotional development and wellbeing. Research findings have shown that children in care are more likely than other children to be excluded from taking part in research about their life. Children’s participation is often controlled by professionals and managers of institutions involved with children. They have the role of evaluating research and handling access applications. These professionals assess what ethical issues may be at stake and they have to consider protection and rights of children who participate. The study aims at looking for the experiences of two parties; managers and professionals in social and educational services, who handle applications from researchers to get access and permission to children in care.

The data is based on focus group interviews with managers and professionals in social and educational services in Iceland. Results indicate that change is needed to enhance participation of children in care, in research. Professionals want to see more co-operation between professionals and researchers to build trust and common understanding. Professional understanding of childhood seems to be more in the direction towards protection rather than participation. Researchers need to prepare their applications to managers and be more clear about their work to gain better access.

This calls on clearer pathways, more transparent regulations and increased dialogue on children’s ability to participate in research in welfare service.

Hervör Alma PhD Student, Lecturer
Dr. Guðrún Kristinsdóttir, Professor Emerita

***

Families with Cancer: childrens conditions

A three years research project is described. Main goal: throw light on children’s position, needs and ethical rights at parents´ cancer diagnosis and treatment. Research questions: (1) is attention paid to the child when a parent is diagnosed with cancer, during treatment and at the parent´s death?; (2) which are the experiences and suggestions of professionals, the surviving father, children and grandparents? The implementation of the study was threefold. The first part is a focus-group discussion with groups of professionals at the National University Hospital (research report, 2015). In part, two long interviews with 15 families was conducted (research report, 2017). Third part is a 6 months experimental project with quality service for families where a parent is in cancer treatment (research report 2018). Main findings revealed: (i) lack of organized procedures at the hospital available for families during period of diagnosis, treatment and death; (ii) inadequate specialized professional help, narrow space and resources for professionals to guard children’s needs and to assist them; (iii) inadequate reactions on behalf of kindergarten/primary schools; (iv) legal issues need to be improved. On bases of these research results a six months pilot project was organized with intervention of a quality service for parent in cancer treatment including organized holding support,   family support from (Beardsley) family bridge and series of lectures on diverse issues on cancer and families. Each part of the project was evaluated with assessments scales, measurements and focus groups.

Phd Sigrún Júlíusdóttir, Social Worker and family therapist

Parallell sessions

13 – 24 (6 September 14:45 – 15:45)

13 DK3 – English
Foster care in Denmark
Professor Inge M. Bryderup is a sociologist and for many years a researcher of Danish social policy and social education in relation to vulnerable children and young people and their families.

Foster care in Denmark
Workshop in English – Open participation

More and more Danish children and young people are currently places in foster care. Despite of that we have no knowledge about whish families become foster families and what kind of children and young people are placed in foster care. A new Danish study compensate for that. The main findings from this research will be presented in the workshop.

Professor Inge M. Bryderup is a sociologist and for many years, she has been a researcher of Danish social policy and social education in relation to vulnerable children and young people and their families. Inge Bryderup is a professor at Aalborg University, where she is a researcher and teacher. In addition, she is a lecturer and she is affiliated with several international networks i.a. as a member of the Board of the European Social Work Research Association and part of the editorial team of the journal “Nordic Social Work Research”.

Familiepleje i Danmark
Workshop in English – Open participation

Flere og flere danske børn og unge er i de senere år blevet anbragt i familiepleje. Der eksisterer imidlertid ikke viden om, hvilke slags familier der er familieplejere og hvilke typer af børn og unge, der anbringes i familiepleje. Det råder en ny dansk undersøgelse bod på. Denne undersøgelses hovedresultater formidles i denne workshop.

Professor Inge M. Bryderup er uddannet sociolog og har i mange år forsket i socialpolitik og socialpædagogik i forhold til socialt udsatte børn og unge og deres familier. Inge Bryderup er professor ved Aalborg universitet, hvor hun er forsker og underviser. Desuden er hun en afholdt foredragsholder og er tilknyttet flere internationale netværk bl.a. som medlem af bestyrelsen i European Social Work Research Association og redaktionsmedlem i tidsskriftet Nordic Social Work Research.

14 DK4 – Dansk
Modeller i det socialpædagogiske arbejde – virker de på udsatte børn og unge?
Søren Skjødt er uddannet pædagog, har været på Godhavn i 27 år de seneste 17 år som forstander.
Sidder i flere bestyrelser, bl.a. som formand i Foreningen af Døgn – og Dagtilbud for udsatte børn og unge

Modeller i det socialpædagogiske arbejde – virker de på udsatte børn og unge?
Workshop in Danish – Open participation

Danmark gennemførte i 2007 en kommunal reform. Reformen betød bl.a. et større økonomiskansvar i kommunerne for det specialiserede Børn- og ungeområde. Reformen betød et stærkt fokus på at kvalificere og optimere anbringelsesområdet.  Nye styringsformer blev afprøvet.  Ny lovgivning blev indført, og modeller blev udviklet. Den mest kendte model blev Herningmodellen, modellen var inspireret af erfaringer fra Borås, en svensk kommune. Herningmodellen betød store investeringer, både for myndighederne og udføreområdet.

Nu 5 år efter er Herningmodellen fortsat inspirationskilde for mange kommuner, og i april 2017 udkom KORA med en evaluering af projektet. Søren Skjødt vil kommentere og udfordre på Herningmodellen ud fra et praksisperspektiv. Søren Skjødt er uddannet pædagog, har været på Godhavn i 27 år de seneste 17 år som forstander. Sidder i flere bestyrelser, bl.a. i FADD (Foreningen af Døgn – og Dagtilbud for udsatte børn og unge) som formand og som medlem af Selveje Danmark.

Social education models – are they useful towards vulnerable children and young people?

A Municipality Reform was implemented in Denmark from January 2007. The reform meant that the municipalities took over the specialized child and youth welfare i.e. including the economy of the area. The Reform also created a clearer focus in relation to all placements of children and young people in order to qualify and optimize the whole area of placements. New guiding principles were put into force. New legislation was introduced and new models were developed. The most known model was the so called “Herning – model” – a model that took its inspiration from a Swedish municipality Borås. The Herning – model meant very big investments both for the municipalities and for the institutions of placing.

Now, after 5 years, the Herning – model is a continued inspiration for many municipalities and in April 2017, the Danish Institute for Municipalities and Regions (Kora) did an evaluation Soeren Skjoedt will comment and challenge the Herning – model from a practical perspective of the institutions in Denmark. Soeren Skjoedt is principal at the placement institution “Godhavn” for the last 17 years while he has worked there more than 25 years. He is president of the FADD (Foreningen af Døgn – og Dagtilbud for udsatte børn og unge) and he is a member of the Danish Institution “Selveje Denmark”.

15 FI3 – English
Children´s rights in EU „migrant crisis“ – unaccompanied/separated children in Finland
Taina Martiskainen, senior adviser, Central Union for Child Welfare

Separated children must show their commitment to integrate to our society – but how does the society show commitment towards these children and young people? EU has introduced the concept of integrated child protection systems. These children have right to child welfare services in Finland but seem not to fit into the system. How to organize services and guarantee the rights of these children and young people?

Workshop on unaccompanied and separated children in Finland – children and young people in the interface between integration and child protection.

In Finland, the reception and integration of unaccompanied minors/separated children is split into two administrative sectors. The Finnish Immigration Service has the responsibility of reception services (as well as the responsibility of investigating asylum applications and making decisions). It is directed by the Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of Employment and the Economy has the responsibility of integration. This fragmented organizational structure gives challenges to the cooperation of different actors, also at the regional as well as at local level. Both systems are depending on the fact that the numbers of asylum seekers vary. Reception units are opened and closed, and children may have to move several times before they turn 18. Best interests of the child is not the leading principle in the policies. Durable solutions for children is often difficult to find. What happens when a separated child does not fit into these systems? When (s)he shows symptoms and is referred to the child welfare?

At this moment, different laws and policies as well as different professions and working procedures are encountered. The cooperation of different actors and clear sharing of responsibilities becomes important. How do we make it happen that the solutions made for separated children drive from the individual needs of children and young people? When and how the best interests assessment is made? On the other hand, we have to defend the right to non-discrimination and demand child welfare services to be given to these children as well as for other children in the country. The units for separated children should not be less resourced than in child welfare.

However, a 16 year old can be accommodated in a bigger unit with less personnel than in child welfare. Separated children are not entitled to so called after care – the municipalities do not have an obligation to arrange these services, and the practices vary a lot from one municipality to another. On the other hand, we need to consider what is it that the child welfare services can offer to these children.

If the behavior of a child or a young person is alarming, what can be done? What can ‘out of home care’ offer to these children who already are out of home? These children and young people are mostly put into residential care. How is this supporting their integration? What happens to children who are moved from one institution to another?

16 FI2 – English
Russia’s child protection in change
Julia Kuokkanen, senior advisor, Central Union for Child Welfare
Marina Nesterova Timchenko Foundation, Russia

The fall of the Soviet Union and the economic collapse in the 1990s dramatically affected the lives and wellbeing of children and families in Russia. What is the current situation within the child protection field and what is the future perspective? How can the Nordic countries cooperate to promote the rights and well being of children Russia?  Julia Kuokkanen, senior advisor, Central Union for Child Welfare.

17 FÆ2 – Dansk
Børneværn og den proaktive indsats
Óli Rubeksen, SSP-rådgiver på Barnaverndarstova Føroya

Børneværn og den proaktive indsats

Historisk set er børneværnets indsats baseret på en bekymring for børn og unge, som allerede lever under forhold, som kan beskadige deres helbred og udvikling. Udfordringen i denne sammenhæng er at få øje på disse børn og at give dem den nødvendige hjælp og omsorg rettidigt, således at de får en tryg opvækst. Systemet er dog særdeles afhængigt af, hvorvidt man får underretninger om disse børn, og dette er jo problematisk.

Ifølge rapporten Svigt af børn i Danmark, status 2016/17 (TrygFonden og Børns Vilkår 2017), kender 40% af alle voksne ikke deres underretningspligt, og to ud af tre danskere ville ikke underrette kommunen, hvis et barn bliver slået. Man vil ikke blande sig – og således oplever mange børn endnu et svigt, med de negative konsekvenser, som følger med. Denne holdning er sandsynligvis lige så almindelig på Færøerne. Man har derfor i adskillige år indskærpet indberetningspligten for fagpersoner, som beskæftiger sig med børn og unge, og er nu nået derhen, at den forebyggende indsats skal styrkes overfor alle børn ved hjælp af tidlig opsporing og behandling af sager om overgreb mod børn og unge. Denne indsats må indarbejdes alle steder, hvor børn og unge tilbringer deres dagligdag, og det politiske niveau må skabe ressourcegrundlag til arbejdet.

Med en forstærket og systematisk forebyggende indsats som en tilføjelse til det traditionelle børnsværnsarbejde får man en markant udvidelse af den sikkerhedszone, som alle børn bør befinde sig indenfor, og som også skaber et meget bedre samspil mellem forældrene og det offentlige system med en indbygget fleksibilitet.

Child Protection Services – A Proactive Approach
In a historical context, the efforts made by the Child Protection Services are most often based on concerns abot children and young people, who already live in circumstances that may cause to negatively influence their health and development. A major challenge has therefore been to identify these children, and give them the necessary help and care at an early stage so that they may experience safe upbringing. However, this system is very much contingent on whether the Child Protection Services are informed of these cases, and this is highly problematic.

According to the report ’Svigt af Børn i Danmark, status 2016/2017’ (TrygFonden og Børns Vilkår 2017) 40% of all adults in Denmark are not aware of their obligation to report cases when necessary, and two out of three Danish adult citizens would not notify their municipality in the case of a child being smacked or otherwise physically punished by parents or carers.  People ’do not wish to meddle’. Hence, children are again ’let down’ by others, and suffer the negative consequences that this entails. It is very likely that this also takes place in the Faroes. Therefore, efforts have been made in recent years to place greater emphasis on child and youth care professionals’ obligation to report cases where necessary. The intervention services must be strengthened through early detection and treatment concerning children at risk of abuse and neglect. These efforts must be systematically implemented in all environments where children and young people spend the majority of their time, and on a political level, resources must be allocated to ensure successful implementation and positive change.

With strengthened and systematic efforts put in place to complement traditional child protection work, the result will be a widened ’zone of safety’ which all children should exist within. This will also help ensure better grounds for constructive and effective communication pathways between parents and the public administration with inherent flexibility.

18 IS2 – English
European standards for Barnahus – Promise
Turid Heiberg, Head of the Unit for Children at Risk
Ólöf Ásta Farestveit, head of the Icelandic Barnahus
Bragi Guðbrandsson, former General Director of The Governmental Agency For Child Protection in Iceland

PROMISE is an EC funded project promoting multidisciplinary and interagency services for child victims and witnesses of violence. The project has generated a European movement, gathering Government officials and professionals, dedicated to spread the Barnahus (Children’s House) model across Europe. The interest in Barnahus is rooted in its potential to realise children’s rights to protection and child friendly justice. Research demonstrates the positive impact of the model in terms of facilitating coordinated, effective and child friendly assistance and justice for children, while respecting the alleged perpetrator’s right to a fair trial.

The objective of the symposium is to highlight opportunities and constraints in operating Barnahus and similar models aiming to be an integral part of the public and justice systems with special emphasis on the development in the Nordic countries.

19 NO1 repeated – English
Why listen to Children? The value of Children’s participation in procurement of institutions for children
Iben Schier van den Berg, Avdelingsdirektør, Barne – og familieetaten i Oslo kommune
Vilde Adolfsen, Leder, Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn

Hvorfor skal vi lytte til barna? 

-Verdien av barns medvirkning i kommunens anbudskonkurranse-  


Barne- og familieetaten i Oslo  har ansvar for å gi tilbud til barn og unge som skal flytte ut av hjemmet for en kortere eller lengre periode. Bydelenes barneverntjenester er ansvarlige for å treffe de nødvendige vedtak før barnet flytter på institusjon. 
 

Etaten er opptatt av barn og unges medvirkning i utviklingen av kunnskapsbasert tjenesteutvikling, og vektlegger barn og unges egne erfaringer og kunnskap om hvordan det er å bo på en institusjon. 

Derfor har barne – og familieetaten tatt initiativ til å involvere barn og unge i anskaffelser av barneverninstitusjoner. Etatens anskaffelse er bygget opp omkring åtte kjerneoppgaver som alle har utgangspunkt i barn og unges behov – kjerneoppgavene er utarbeidet med innspill fra barn og unge. 


Det har vært viktig å ha med barn helt fra første planleggingsmøte, i utarbeidelsen av indikatorer på kvalitet og evalueringsmatrise, samt gjennomlesning av konkrete tilbud. 
 

Vi tror derfor at ved å involvere barn og unge i institusjonsanskaffelsene, vil vi få bedre institusjonstilbud. Vi mener vi vil få et bedre grunnlag for å følge opp avtalene gjennom fokus på kjerneverdier. Vi tror vi lettere vil kunne ta barn og unges perspektiv i dialog med den enkelte institusjon. Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn (LFB) er en medlems- og interesseorganisasjon for nåværende og tidligere barnevernsbarn, som jobber for å bedre barn og unges rettigheter i møte med barnevernet. Vi er opptatt av å ta barn og unges opplevelser på alvor, og forvalte disse erfaringene på en måte som fører til et bedre og mer hensiktsmessig barnevern. LFB har vært en stor pådriver for brukermedvirkning og brukerinvolvering helt siden organisasjonen ble stiftet i 1997. Vi er opptatt av at medvirkningen må være reell, og at man får medvirke i alle ledd av prosessen. Vi mener at barnevernet, gjennom medvirkning, vil kunne tilby bedre tjenester som er relevante og tidsriktige for barn og unge. Dette gjelder også for samarbeidet mellom LFB og Barne-og familietetaten 

 

Iben Schier van den Berg                                       Vilde Adolfsen 

Avdelingsdirektør                                                    Leder 

Barne – og familieetaten i Oslo kommune         Landsforeningen for barnevernsbarn  

20 NO2 repeated – English
Reliability and quality assurance in child welfare services
Sidsel Sverdrup, Professor, PhD (dr. polit.) VID Specialized University, Faculty of Health Studies

Forsvarlighet og internkontroll i barnevernet

Presentasjonen retter søkelyset mot det kommunale barnevernets arbeid med forsvarlighet, kvalitets­sikring og internkontroll. Dette er styringsbegreper som er angitt i Lov om barneverntjenester. Hvordan forståes sentrale begreper som forsvarlighet, kvalitet og kvalitetssikring, internkontroll og avvik av ulike aktører i barnevernet gjennom hele tiltakskjeden?  Det er gjennomført en kvalitativ studie basert på et strategisk utvalg av barneverntjenestene og administrasjonene i tre kommuner i Norge. I alt 23 informanter som arbeider i eller med barnevernet er intervjuet, herunder saksbehandlere, barnevernledere, fagsjefer, enhetsledere, kommunal­sjefer og rådmenn, i tillegg til representanter fra fylkes­mennene samt Statens Helsetilsyn.

En kvalitativ intervju­guide er benyttet. Den sentrerte rundt temaer knyttet til forsvarlighet, internkontroll, avvik, kvalitet og kvalitetssikring, kompetanse og arbeidskultur, og reiste spørsmål om hvordan disse Begrepene blir oppfattet og forstått, samt etterlevd i praksis.  Et hovedfunn er at det er ulike forståelser av de sentrale begrepene hos de informantene som er intervjuet, avhengig av hvor i tiltakskjeden de befinner seg. Gjennomgående viser resultatene at saksbehandlere er kjent med begrepene og deres innhold, men bruker dem i svært liten grad. De anvender heller andre begreper, slik som «barnets beste» eller «gode nok tjenester». Dette er imidlertid ikke det samme som at de ikke yter det jobben og lovverket forventer av dem. Deres praksis, slik det både er redegjort for i intervjuer og i observasjoner av gruppeveiledning, peker på at de er samvittighetsfulle i sin yrkesutøvelse og opptatt av å levere forsvarlige tjenester. Barnevernledere står i en mellomposisjon mellom saksbehandlere og administrative ledere: De er klar over at saksbehandlere ikke har et aktivt forhold til de aktuelle begrepene, og når de kommuniserer med sine saksbehandlere anvender de gjerne samme begreper som saks­behandlerne gjør. Når barne­vern­lederne kommuniserer oppover i linja anvendes derimot de styringsbegrepene som er angitt i lovverket. På nivåene over barnevernleder anvendes begrepene som er trukket opp i lovverket, og begrepene framholdes som gode og relevante.

Fra samtlige nivåer framheves det at begrepene forsvarlighet, kvalitet og kvalitetssikring, intern­kontroll og avvik viser til ulike sider av samme sak, og at de på mange måter avhenger av hverandre: et forsvarlig barnevern bør være opptatt av kontinuerlig kvalitetsutvikling og kvalitetssikring. Dette avhenger av ressurser, kompetanse og tid, en god og støttende arbeidskultur, veiledning og gode rutiner for avviksrapportering og avvikshåndtering.

SIDSEL SVERDRUP 
Professor, PhD (dr. polit.)  VID Specialized University, Faculty of Health Studies

21 SV1 repeated – English
Interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health
Knut Sundell Associate Professor, Senior Advisor for Social Affairs, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

Interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health

The seminar will present two systematic reviews on interventions for children in foster care and their foster parents. The first review focus on interventions to improve foster children’s mental and physical health, social situation, quality of life, and stability of placements. The second review focus on an alternative to residential care for antisocial juveniles: Treatment Foster Care Oregon. This review focus on criminal behaviour, incarceration, drug use, mental health and social situation. The presentation will include economic, and ethical impact analyses, as well as implications for professional work.

The presentation will be commented by representatives from the organization Maskrosbarn and Professor Marie Sallnäs.

Presenter: Knut Sundell Associate Professor, Senior Advisor for Social Affairs
Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

22 SV2 repeated – English
Interventions by the personal social services when children are maltreated
Stefan Wiklund, Associate professor and Hanna Linell, Phd

Interventions by the personal social services when children are maltreated

Two presentations will be held during the seminar. The first presentation covers a systematic review on in-home interventions targeting children exposed to child maltreatment including abuse and IPV. The review was published in 2018 by the Swedish Agency For Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services and is presented by one of the participants in the expert group. The second presentation covers a dissertation from the Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, on formal applications of compulsory care made by municipalities in Swedish child welfare as well as societal responses when children are exposed to violence. The thesis is based on the perspective of children as actors and victims, and is presented by the author.

After the two presentations, representatives from the organisation Maskrosbarn, and Kjerstin Bergman, National coordinator development work children and young people (Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions) are giving their reflections of the review as well as the dissertation.

Presenters: Stefan Wiklund, Associate professor and Hanna Linell, Phd

23 NVC – English
A Nordic perspective on integration

Kristin Marklund, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Mette Blauenfeldt, Head of Knowledge Center for Vulnerable Refugees at the Danish Refugee Council
Ali Safi, Mindspringtrainer, from the Danish Refugee Council
Edda Ólafsdóttir, Jóhanna Erla Guðjónsdóttir and Jóhanna Jóhannesdóttir from City of Reykjavik

A Nordic perspective on integration

One of our times most important challenge is the integration of newly arrived children, young people and families. A good integration can improve people’s lives and also strengthen the Nordic welfare states over time.

Around 200 000 child and adolescent asylum seekers came to the Nordic region between 2011 and 2016. Although a majority of the children came with their families, a large number came as unaccompanied minors.

At this seminar we will present Nordic projects in process regarding integration of children coming as refugees to the Nordic countries. We will present examples of different early interventions used in the countries for children and families new to their country. A specific focus will be held on the MindSpring program from Denmark and the results that they – since 2010 – have achieved. We will also give an insight in how Iceland is working with these issues. Comparisons between the countries and identifying and disseminating best practices from each other can facilitate a more successful integration.

Anna Gärdegård, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Kristin Marklund, Senior adviser at the Nordic Welfare Centre
Mette Blauenfeldt, Head of Knowledge Center for Vulnerable Refugees at the Danish Refugee Council
Edda Ólafsdóttir, Jóhanna Erla Guðjónsdóttir and Jóhanna Jóhannesdóttir from City of Reykjavik

24 IS – English

Occurrence of diverse forms of child abuse in Iceland
Geir Gunnlaugsson, Professor of Global Health, Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Ethnography, University of Iceland

Prevention of child abuse in Iceland
Jónína Einarsdóttir, Professor of Anthropology, Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Folkloristics, University of Iceland

Honour-related violence and repression against children and young people
Anna Kaldal, Associate Professor in Procedural Law
Emelie Kankaanpää Thell PhD student in Criminal Law

Occurrence of diverse forms of child abuse in Iceland

Introduction: International research shows that child physical health in Iceland, as measured by the infant mortality rate, is ranked as the best in the world and childhood conditions are one of the best for positive growth and development. Notwithstanding, in the last few decades it is increasingly recognized that Icelandic children suffer diverse types and forms of child abuse at the hands of their parents.

Aims: Give an overview of the prevalence of different types and forms of child abuse in Iceland.

Methods: Analysis of published research on child abuse in Iceland.

Results: Qualitative and quantitative research reveals that many children, including unborn babies, have experienced diverse forms of child abuse in their homes, state institutions and schools, be it physical, emotional, and sexual, child neglect and/or intra-familial conflicts. Evidence has been accumulating on the negative impact that diverse types of child abuse have on childhood and later adult health and wellbeing.

Conclusions: Icelandic children have reportedly experienced diverse forms of child abuse and neglect from their parents and other carers on level with, or higher than global and Nordic estimates. With increased recognition of the problem at hand, the debate in Iceland has moved from discussions on whether child abuse exists to discussions on how to prevent it and remedy its consequences.

Short Bio
Geir Gunnlaugsson (geirgunnlaugsson@hi.is) is a paediatrician and professor of Global Health at the Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Ethnography, University of Iceland. He has a PhD in paediatrics and a Master of Science degree in Public Health from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Main fields of research include breastfeeding, child abuse, infectious diseases, primary healthcare and preventive work in Iceland, Guinea-Bissau, and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

Svenska

Förekomst av olika former av våld mot barn på Island

Introduktion: Internationell forskning visar att barns fysiska hälsa på Island, baserat på spädbarnsdödlighet, räknas till den bästa i världen, och barns uppväxtvillkor en av de bästa för positiv tillväxt och utveckling. Samtidigt har kunskap gradvist ökat om att isländska barn utsätts för våld av olika typer och form av sina föräldrar.

Mål: Ge en överblick över prevalens av olika typer och form av våld mot barn på Island.

Metod: Analys av publicerad material om våld mot barn på Island.

Resultat: Kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning visar att många barn, inklusive ofödda barn, har erfarenhet av olika typer och form av våld inom hemmet, statliga förvaltningar och skolor, dvs fysiskt, psykiskt och sexuellt våld, försummelse och/eller av våld inom familjen. Bevis om den negativa påverkan våld har på barn har samtidigt ökat och dess långsiktiga konsekvenser för deras hälsa och välbefinnande.

Konklusion: Isländska barn har erfarenhet av olika former av våld och försummelse utövat av sina föräldrar på nivå med eller högre än globala och nordiska beskattningar. Med ökande förståelse om problemet, på Island har diskussion om huruvida våld mot barn förekommer övergått till att diskutera prevention och avhjälpa dess konsekvenser.

Kort biografi
Geir Gunnlaugsson (geirgunnlaugsson@hi.is) är barnläkare och professor i global hälsa vid Fakultetet i sociologi, antropologi och etnografi vid Islands universitet. Han har en PhD inom pediatrik och MSc i folkhälsovetenskap vid Karolinska institutet i Stockholm. Forskningsområde inkluderar bl a amning, våld mot barn, infektiösa sjukdomar, primär hälsovård och preventivt arbete på Island och i Guinea-Bissau, samt Afrika söder om Sahara.

***

Prevention of child abuse in Iceland

Introduction: According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989, children have the right to live free from violence and abuse, including violent disciplinary methods. Research in Iceland has revealed that many children experience child abuse in their homes, state institutions and schools, as in other countries.

Aims: Review activities to prevent child abuse in all its types and forms in Iceland.

Methods: Analysis of published reports and other relevant materials in Iceland.

Results: Iceland signed the CRC in 1992, and it was adopted into national legislation in 2013. Both the Child Protection Law and the Children´s Law include paragraphs that align with Iceland´s international obligations on the rights of children. Definitions of the various forms of child abuse have been formulated and revised to help parents, professionals and staff working in child protection services to recognise child abuse. The Welfare Watch, established following the 2008 economic crisis, monitored the health and wellbeing of children, and the initiative Awareness Awakening (2012-2015) raised awareness of child abuse, its consequences and the need for prevention among children, professionals working with children, the judiciary and the general public. Currently, there is emphasis on the prevention of sexual abuse and what service to give victims of such abuse.

Conclusion: Legislation, awareness, public debates and research on child abuse in Iceland has contributed to the growing recognition of the negative consequences of child abuse and strengthened support for preventive strategies.

Short Bio
Jonina Einarsdottir (je@hi.is) is professor of Anthropology at the Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Folkloristics, University of Iceland and has a PhD in anthropology from Stockholm University. Main fields of research include anthropology of children, medical anthropology and development studies. She has, for example, studied responses to child death and child trafficking in Guinea-Bissau, and in Iceland premature birth, child abuse and the Icelandic custom of sending urban children to stay on farms during the summer.

Prevention av våld mot barn på Island

Introduktion: I enlighet med barnkonventionen (CRC), antagen av FN:s generella församling 1989, har barn rätt till ett liv utan våld och missbehandling, inklusive våldsamma disciplinära åtgärder. Som i andra länder har forskning visat att många isländska barn har erfarenhet av våld inom hemmet, offentliga institutioner, och i skolor.

Mål: Recension av aktiviteter för prevention av olika typer och form av våld mot barn på Island.

Metod: Analys av publicerade rapporter och annat relevant material på Island.

Resultat: Island undertecknade CRC 1992 och inkorporerade den i isländsk lagstiftning 2013. Både barnavårdslagen och barnalagen inkluderar paragrafer som uppfyller Islands internationella åtaganden om barns rättigheter. Definitioner av olika form av våld mot barn har framställts och reviderats för att hjälpa föräldrar, professionella och andra som arbetar med barn inom barnavården att känna till tecken av våld mot barn. Välfärdsvakten, etablerat efter den ekonomiska krisen 2008, bevakade barns hälsa och välbefinnande, och initiativet Medvetandegörande (2012-2015) arbetade med att uppmärksamma våld mot barn, dess konsekvenser och behovet av prevention för barn, för professionella som arbetar med barn, domstolarna och den allmänna befolkningen. För närvarande fokuserar det preventiva arbetet på sexuellt våld mot barn och vilken service utsatta barn behöver.

Konklusion: Lagstiftning, medvetande, allmän debatt och forskning om våld mot barn på Island har bidragit till ökat kunskap om den negativa påverkan på barn som utsätts för våld och stöd för preventiva åtgärder.

Kort CV
Jónína Einarsdóttir (je@hi.is) är professor i antropologi vid Fakultetet i sociologi, antropologi och etnografi vid Islands universität och har en PhD från Stockholms universitet. Forskningsområden inkluderar bl a antropologi av barn, medicinsk antropologi och utvecklingsstudie. Hon har bl a studerat respons vid död av barn och barn trafficking i Guinea-Bissau, och på Island prematura barn, våld mot barn och den isländska traditionen att skicka barn som bor i stan ut på bondgårdar ute på landet under sommaren.

***

Honour-related violence and repression against children and young people

During this session, Anna Kaldal (associate professor in procedural law) and Emelie Kankaanpää Thell (PhD student in criminal law) will present studies on honour-related violence and oppression against children and young people.

In the first study we examine how the protection of the child’s right to privacy and right to protection from violence and oppression is stated in Swedish and international law. Focus lies on how the custodian’s responsibility relates to the child’s right to privacy, co-determination and self-determination. The child´s right to participation and privacy according to the child’s age and maturity is analysed in relation to the custodian’s right to control the child´s life.

A result from the study is that there is no doubt that both Swedish and international law states that children are particularly vulnerable and that they are therefore entitled to special protection and that children have the right to participation and co-determination in matters relating to themselves. This right to participation increases with the child’s age and maturity. It is also clear that it is society’s responsibility to effectively implement and protect children’s rights. This might therefore impose new legislation, including criminalization.

In the second article we study how children’s right to protection from honour-related violence and oppression is expressed in the criminal law and handled in criminal investigations. The focus is on how the right to protection from violence and oppression, according to the results from the first study, meet the Swedish criminal law.

Furthermore, the consequences of existing criminal law regulations is analysed from a criminal investigative perspective. Investigative measures taken in a criminal investigation are directly connected to what is criminalised and how severe a crime is. Consequences of changes in the Swedish law is analysed and discussed.

A result from this study is that Swedish criminal law offers quite extensive possibilities to react on violence against children. However, the possibility of punishing what the researchers describe as oppression is more limited. One challenge is to determine where the boundary lays between what can be a legitimate control of a guardian and what constitutes oppression; a general definition of the meaning of oppression does not exist and may not be possible to formalize. This entails challenges when it comes to criminalization.

Furthermore, criminalization directed at the child´s caregiver involves challenges than we don´t find in crimes between unknown or crimes between adults; certain acts committed against children may, if seen separately, be perceived as permissible and even expected in the context of custody responsibility. If the same actions are seen together and in relations to the child’s age and maturity and the right to privacy, they can instead be perceived as oppressive. The relationship between the perpetrator and the plaintiff is discussed in the light of the child´s right to protection from violence and oppression as well as society’s ability to identify, investigate and, in the long run, protect children and young people.

Anna Kaldal, Associate Professor in Procedural Law
Emelie Kankaanpää Thell PhD student in Criminal Law